E-ISSN: 2456-2033

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IJAREM: Volume 08 - No. 11, 2022


1. The Study on the Relation between Neutrophil Respiration Burst Activity and Oxidative Tissue Injury during Ischemia- Reperfusion
Chen Wei
During the ischemia-reperfusion,ROS are produced in the cells of the ischemic or reperfused tissue or organ by the route of mitochondria, xanthine oxidase, catecholamine-self oxidation, especially by xanthine oxidase route. ROS can activate endothelia cells to release P-Selectin or express de novo a series of CAMs, such as E-Slectin, VCAM and ICAM through inducement of the production of TNF-α or through oxidation-reduction sensitive factors such as NF-KB、AP-1. At the same time endothelia cells also set free chemotactic factors, such as IL-8, MIPs etc, which can activate Integrins on the membrane of Neutrophils. The de novo CAMs that endothelia cells express and activated integrins, such as αLβ2(CD-11a, LFA-1), αMβ2, αXβ2 result in the fixed adhesion of neutrohils to endothelial cells, which at last does much harm to blood vessels and tissues by respiratory burst activity or obstructing the blood vessel. During exercise and recovery period after exercise, the ischemia and reperfusion of tissues or organs also exists, but because of the distinct increase of IL-1ra, sTNF-R, IL-10 and IL-6, the amount of TNF-α in blood is small. What is more, IL-6, IL-8 and especially enzymes released during the course of respiratory burst activity, work together to make CD-11b on the neutrohils shed or down-regulate. so it is evident that oxidative injury caused by exercise-induced ischemia/reperfusion differs from what is caused during the general ischemia/reperfusion, that is to say, oxidative injury caused by exercise-induced ischemia/reperfusion seems to have nothing to do with the neutrophils or their respiratory burst activities.


2. Determinants of the Uptake of Infrastructure Projects in Kenya: A Case of Mombasa County, Kenya
Catherine Karimi Njiru
This research project was about the uptake of infrastructural projects in Mombasa County. Since the introduction of devolution in Kenya, a lot has changed in the way infrastructural projects development is undertaken, necessitating the undertaking of this study. The study was guided by four objectives: the influence of politics on uptake of infrastructural projects, the influence adequate funding, stakeholder involvement as well as the role of the county contractors. A survey of literature was done mainly on the existing publications regarding infrastructural projects both at the national and county level and it was evident the uptake of infrastructural projects in Kenya and all over the world has been impacted either positively or negatively by politics, funding, stakeholder involvement and the role of contractors as the implementing agencies. The literature review also brought out the need to ensure and source for adequate funding to ensure that the projects are completed within schedule and the standards of the project maintained. Previous literature also emphasized the need for stakeholder participation throughout the project process as well as ensuring that the contractors who implement the project have been selected trough a fair process and the have the adequate technical and human resource capacity to undertake the project. A conceptual framework shows the relationship between the independent and the dependent variable. The major literature gaps is that counties have been in existent for a period of only five years. The research design used is descriptive research with a sample size of 123 respondents drawn from the county economic and planning department, the county transport and infrastructure department and the trade and investment ministry. The respondents also included members of the Mombasa County assembly both elected and nominated, the ward representatives as well as a selection of registered business community at the Portreitz ward in Mombasa County. The sampling techniques used was disproportionate stratified sampling. The study employed descriptive research design with open and closed ended questionnaires being the used as they are fast, convenient, and also help to eliminate the biasness of the researcher and provides the desired privacy. The data collection instrument was tested for validity and reliability before being used in the actual investigation. The data has been analysed using statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS) version 21 to generate frequencies, percentages, and standard deviations. From the data analysis it is evident that the four independent variables have an impact on the uptake of infrastructure projects in Mombasa County. Inferential statistics indicated there is a strong positive correlation between the independent variables with adequate financing, stakeholder’s involvement and role of contractors being represented by (r=0.825, p<0.05),(r=0.774,p<0.05),(r=0.867,p<0.05), respectively and politics obtaining a strong negative correlation of (r=-0.878,p<0.05) . The summarized finding and conclusions were as per the data obtained from the respondents and the recommendations were on the need to ensure that infrastructural projects are economic projects and therefore should be separated from negative politics, should be allocated enough budget at the county budget, should ensure that the contractors entrusted with the implementation are professionals and have the ability to deliver quality projects.









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