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IJAREM: Volume 03 - No. 07, 2017 (Version-I)


1. Arduino Technique for Renewable Energy System
Mr. S. Baskaran M.E., K.Sathish Kumar, A.Vasanth Kanna, C.Vignesh
The multi power system is one of the developing fields in the electronics. The main problem in this is the switching between the various power sources. This concept is already achieved with the help of fuzzy network and it is designed with the matlab simulation software. The main drawback of this was that the time taken was greater and the power loss was also high. The one method to overcome is by using the modern technology. The one such type is the use of Arduino. The Arduino is a multipurpose device. The main advantage of using this is the multiple input and output. The Arduino is capable of processing multiple tasks in quick period of time. In this project the switch over is done with the help of Arduino. The program is designed in such a way that the renewable energy is used first and the main power source is used when the scarcity of renewable power occurs. It is also designed in such a way that the source gets altered based upon the load we are using in it.


2. Design and Coverage Driven Verification of AXI2OCP Bridge for Industrial SoC Designs
Limbanna. P. Rathod, Dr. Jayanthi. K. Murthy, Mr. Shaik Chand Basha
The most popular communication architectures for SoC designs are advanced peripheral bus (APB) and the advanced high-performance bus (AHB) of AMBA from ARM. But in recent years some advanced communication protocols such as Advanced eXtensible Interface (AXI) and open core protocol (OCP) are introduced to facilitate parallel communication. These protocols works with different bus widths, protocols and frequencies. Currently semiconductor industries commonly use AXI and OCP in their SoC to support wide range of features. Any mismatch in communication speed and protocol leads to incorrect interaction between the cores and IPs which eventually results in unexpected behavior of the SoC Design. For the synchronized communication between AXI and OCP protocols, it requires advanced AXI2OCP Bridge which utilizes advanced technique for synchronization purpose between them. In order to design and verify the expected behavior of the bridge design, functional verification is a necessary process and complex too. In order to check the complete functionality of AXI2OCP Bridge it is necessary to build a test environment and generate the stimulus for many test-cases to examine the various features of AXI and OCP protocols. This paper mainly deals with the design of such advanced bridge for effective communication between such protocols and implementation of functional coverage and assertions to prove its accurate functionality using Mentor Graphics Questa-SIM tool. A measure of the bus utilization of AXI 3.0 protocol is also presented.


3. Examining the effectiveness of organisations matching their pro-active workforce with Introvert leadership and its influence on the overall team performance
Dr. Lalitha Balakrishnan, Ms. Ramya Raman
There are enormous leaders exhibitingdiverse styles of leadership across organisations worldwide for sustaining employee co-operation and commitment towards the common vision.Each individual is exclusive and distinct from the other, so do their styles. Personality of a person may influence his/her employees. The purpose of this research paper is to shed light on the leadership styles demonstrated by introverted leaders and its stimulus to their naturally pro-active employees.A detailed questionnaire has been designed to construe the inspiration level of introverted leaders to their pro-active employees and whether the former will be accepted in organisations by the latter. It has also been endeavoured to reveal if silent bosses inspire their robust and passionate counterparts. The study also aims to find out under what circumstance does an introvert leader exhibit greater team performance.


4. Examination of the Effects Caused By Air Voids in Asphalt Mixture to Extend the Fatigue Service Life in Asphalt Roads
Mr BN Ngxongo and Prof D Allopi
Pavement deformation (rutting) of Asphalt is one of the most experienced distresses resulting in pavement permanent deformation in the service life of a road. Zhi et al, 2009 states that with an increase in traffic (light and heavy transport) and climatic changes, the road surface is exposed to constant and excessive traffic stress which may lead to permanent pavement deformation.
In service, asphalt model need to provide a safe, durable and stable, road surface with early failures. The stability of the asphalt is determined by the strength, flexibility and the degree of compaction in the progress of placing of the mixture. The strength of asphalt needs to be adequate to withstand the load without shear deformation that may occur between the particles.
The properties of asphalt mixture are influenced by the quality of its components such as binder, aggregates and air voids in mix and the mix design quantities.
A reduction in water damage can be attained by modifying the aggregate surface through chemical treatment or the addition of anti-stripping agents. However, complete covering of the particle by an asphalt film should decrease the quantity of water reaching the aggregate and reduce the deleterious effects of water on the aggregate. Building of roads with low air voids or good drainage may be the most influential effect in reducing water damage, by limiting the exposure of the asphalt aggregate bond to water.
This study has discovered that high voids reduce the stiffness strength of the asphalt mixture which decreases the road service life. Rubberize asphalt has high VIM and high stiffness which perform well. These display good characteristics of the rubber crumb binder that is best modifying agent in the asphalt mixtures that is able to resist fatigue on the road thus it can extend the road fatigue life and perform well under extreme heavy traffic load.


5. Recent Developments in Natural Fiber Composites: A Review
Chika EdithMgbemena,ChinedumOgonnaMgbemena
The present level of research activities in natural fiber reinforced composites is very promising and rewarding. The aim of this review of reviews is to identify from literature, the recent developments in natural fiber reinforced composites. The search was conducted on 7 databases with the final selection of 31 studies with a total of 3437 citations after full text review. In this review paper, published literatures within the last five years were revisited; various fibers, fiber treatments, fiber reinforced composites and their physicomechanical properties were identified. Developmental trends in the methods of fiber extraction, fiber treatment and characterization were reported. A comprehensive review of some natural fibers identified from recent literatures were given for comparative study. The research identifiedthat many workers prefer chemical modification (alkaline, silane, acetylation, benzoylation, acrylation and acrylonitrile grafting, maleated coupling, permanganate, peroxide, and isocyanate treatment) of the natural fibers than physical modifications/treatments. The maleated and silane treatments are increasingly applied in most chemical modifications as widely reported.


6. Wireless Sensor Network Security on Air: Issues and Challenges – A Review
Yesodha.P, S.Prithi, G. Jenny Niveditha
Wireless networking is grown from cellular voice telephony to wireless access to internet. After a decade of exponential growth, today's wireless industry is one of the largest industry in the world. The sensors with actuators and general purpose computing elements, can act as nodes for communicating information through wireless medium and many sensors can be linked together to form a network called Wireless Sensor Network. Wireless sensor networks consist of tiny sensors to monitor environmental conditions such as temperature, pressure, vibration, motion or pollutant. The sensors are deployed in environment for commercial, military and civil applications. This paper reviews about the concept of wireless sensor network, types of attack on WSN, security issues and challenges experienced by such networks.


7. High Voltage Battery Monitoring System
Purva Patil, Mr. K. Lakshman
Battery monitoring system (BMS) is used in battery operated industrial and commercial equipments to avoid any failures and increase running hours of equipments. A Lead acid battery string (LAB) is a set of lead-acid cells connected in series. This paper presents High Voltage Battery Monitoring System can monitor LAB of 112 cells (2V each) connected in series thus an effective string voltage of 224 VDC. The proposed system is a low cost individual cell monitoring system suitable for LAB. The system has two main parts: one part is the main control unit (MCU) that stores, analyses cells data in a battery monitoring system software and presents cells data in the graphical form and the other is 14 peripheral devices module (PD) one for eight battery cells that measures voltage and electrolytic temperature of eight cells and sends data to the MCU. The MCU could connect the PD on the RS485 bus. Through the modbus communication, the battery data is transmitted to the monitoring system software and it will be stored in the database for the estimating of state of charge. It also provides signals to the Battery Charger panel.


8. Use of GIS and HEC-RAS tools in the flood hazard mapping of an ungauged river: A case study of the Malekhu Khola, central Nepal
Niraj Bal Tamang, Naresh Kazi Tamrakar
Flood has always been one of the major problem in developing countries like Nepal.Flood hazard maps for 2 years, 25 years, 50 years, 100 years and 200 years return periods were prepared for the Malekhu Khola section between the Cheuritar and the old Malekhu Bridge using Arc GIS with HEC-GeoRAS extension and HEC-RAS. For this ungauged river, field parameters were used along with empirical formulas for the peak discharge calculation and Manning's n value. The geometric parameters were determined through fieldwork, topographic maps and google images in Arc GIS 9.3. Then, the input parameters were put in HEC-RAS to produce a flood inundation map. Then, the map was analyzed in GIS to produce a flood hazard map. It was observed that the downstream portions are comparatively more affected by the flood rather than the upstream section. There is only a slight change in the floodprone area at different return periods. The graphical plot of the flooded area versus the return period shows that there is no significant change in the low and moderate hazard zones for most of the return periods but the hazard levels increase with the increase in return periods.


9. Calibrating Cable Error
S.Arunachalam, B.Uma Maheswari
In today's scenario, to make the process cost efficient and to produce high quality products almost all industries tend to move toward Automation. In place where the process is simple and can be controlled using a pre-defined set of instruction Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) are used. In more complex and where the process variable needs continuous update and monitoring Distributed Control System (DCS) is used. The control system attains data from field instruments via Instrument cable. The measuring or field instrument measures the variables and these variables can be physical, mechanical or chemical and it is converted into equivalent electrical value. During the course of transmission due to external parameters the output displayed many vary due the change in resistance of the transmission cable and this effect is absent in optical cable but they are not cheap. The measuring instrumentsare used to measure the process variable such as flow, pressure, temperature, pH, concentration and many others. Some of these process variables tend to play a vital role in a process depending upon the product being manufactured. The measured parameter from the field instrument is transmitted in the value of 4-20mA because the current tends to same irrespective distance between the control system and the instrument. This paper reviews the method to rectify these errors in a transmission cable.


10. Performance Evaluation of Computerised Multi Fuel Research Engine Using Variable Compression Ratio (VCR)
R.G.Bodkhe, S. S. Akant, S. L. Bankar
During this century, one of the major problem faced by the world is global environment problem. The result of combustion of petroleum fuel is one of the main reason which leads to global environment problem. This in turn leads to global warming, acid rains, climate change and ozone layer depletion. Diesel is one of the most widely used petroleum fuel. Diesel engines are preferred over other engines due to their higher efficiency. The importance of diesel engines for human application is growing day by day. The engine operating parameters also play a key role in tuning the engine conforming to better performance and emission standards. Emissions from automobiles have a major contribution to the air pollution which has a hazardous effect on the environment. The need to reduce these emissions is necessary in present day. The alarming situation in front of the engineers worldwide is to reduce the ever increasing environmental pollution due to emission of vehicles. This study is aimed to investigate performance of Diesel Engine at varying loads and compression ratio and to find the best possible combination of load and compression ratio at which efficiency is maximum and emissions are minimum. The experiments were conducted on widely used Diesel Engine without major modifications. All the tests were conducted at steady state and constant speed by varying the load. Also the emissions from the engine were studied by performing the tests.


11. Work Breakdown Structure and Cost Analysis of a Residential Building
Tejaswini.R, Swetha.K.S, Dr. S Rajendra
Project scope is the work required to output a project's deliverable. Change happens, and project scope management includes the process to manage scope changes and make sure the project will still come in on time and within budget. Scope is often defined by a work breakdown structure, and changes should take place only through formal change control procedures. WBS plays a major role in planning the entire framework of a project which includes various work packages as per the scope of the project. In this current project the residential building is taken as a case study and the scope of work is broken down into finite number of levels which helps the planning engineer to get clarity on cost, schedule. Two different approaches in WBS are followed, the regular approach (Top down) and Bottom Up approach. The comparative analysis is done on both the approach and resource planning is evaluated and the best method is suggested. Also Primavera's WBS feature is presented with various colour contours to show different levels which help us to generate reports based on the work packages.


IJAREM: Volume 03 - No. 07, 2017 (Version-II)


1. Risk Assessment and Analysis Using Primavera
Mr. Karthik T V, Mrs. Swetha K S
Construction projects mandatorily have different types of risk factors involved during the process of start to end of a project in various WBS levels from planning to execution level. Risk management is a key domain area to be considered. The process of risk management involves risk identification, quantifying and risk mitigation which has a procedural set up based on the type of project. Identifying the risks at earlier stage and having a proper action plan to resolve is the best project management practice. The Probability and Impact values can be calculated by various risk management techniques. This project involves all the process of Risk management where using features of Primavera in defining the P*I (Probability*Impact) matrix which will give us a clarity on the impact of the risk on the total cost of the affected activities.


2. Design of Solar PV Energy System for Wajir Town, Wajir County, Kenya
Elmi M.D, Kinyua. R, Kamau J.N
Solar PV systems are suitable for areas where grid connections are unavailable. Northeastern Kenya being an off grid area requires an alternative to close the gap of electricity shortages. This study provides proactive measure to resolve the potential energy issue in the near future. The Study present the development of an effective approach of designing, assessing, analyzing and determining economic viability of solar energy availability in Wajir town. Located in the north-eastern part of Kenya with population of 0.7million, the county receives about 300 sunny days in a year. Mostly, the daytime is extremely long in the summer time from 7:00am to 6:00pm. The unique weather profile favors the adoption of the solar energy technology. Solar Radiation was recorded for three month (October, November and December 2016) and also from the meteorological headquarters from the year 2000 to 2010. Results revealed that Wajir has an average daily insolation of 6.6 kWh/m2. Energy demand survey of 20 households, 20 shops and the main hospital were conducted and later on design using Sunny Web design software was used to model by assuming 300 households, 20 shops and the main referral hospital. Sizing for PV array, inverters and modules were necessary to attain 122.25 kWp system for households, 25 kWp system for shops and 239 kWp system for the hospital.


3. Reduced Switch Single-Phase Five-Level Inverter for Grid
Connected PV System

Jisi Nalupurakkandiyil, T G Sanish Kumar
A reduced switch multi-level inverter for grid connected photovoltaic (PV)system is presented in
this paper. A conventional grid connected PV system uses full-bridge inverters which results a three level
output. Inverter output THD can be reduced by increasing its number of levels. For that we can use
conventional multi-level inverters like diode clamped, flying capacitor and cascaded-H bridge. But, in all
these topologies, the number of circuit elements increases with increase in number of levels. The multi-level
inverter discussed in this work offers higher power capability with lower harmonics and lower switching
losses with an additional advantage of reduction in the number of power electronic switches using an
auxiliary circuit arrangement. A conventional grid PV system and PV system with reduced switch five-level
inverter are simulated using MATLAB/Simulink and the results are analyzed. Also, in simulation THD of
the above two systems are compared.


4. Study on Wind Analysis of Multi-Storied Building with Regular and Irregular Plan
Adarsh S B, Sridhar R
ETABS 2015 (Extended three dimensional analysis of building system) is the tool to analysing the multi-storey structure. In this study the effect of wind on multi storied structure for the plan of regular and irregular is observed. In addition, the effect of shape on wind analysis is also discussed. The comparison of impact of wind for Rectangular, and U-shape, building structure is presented. The post analysis consist typical characteristic comparison related to storey displacement, storey drift, time period, etc. The categorization of structure as Class-B of wind code consideration for height is used for modelling of structure. Modelling of as category-2 is taken constant to compare the result. This study of structure for plan of regular and irregular concludes that shape of the structure is more dominant for story displacement, story drift, time period etc. and also shape of the structure will play role on safety of the structure against wind effect.


5. Crowd Sourced Utility Application
K.MarySudha Rani, SaiTej Dandge, Pallavi Yenigalla
Crowdsourcing has emerged as new learning and online collaborative paradigm, in which crowds of people can collaborate and complete a specific task. This project enables users to connect and share Mcq's, Blogs with tags included. It provides a graphical analysis of the performance of each individual based on their attempts and also a comparative performance with others. It provides a social network among the people to chat and share ideas among them so that they can share their knowledge and ideas over the application. This is scalable as it is deployed on the cloud and the resources allocated can be increased as the number of users of the application increase. It also suggests questions based on the pattern of search or type of questions which the user answers. Overall this project on the cloud helps people to interact and gain knowledge through questionnaires and answering questions, which leads to the sharing of one's information with everyone.


6. Design and Fabrication of Compressed air powered Six Stroke Engine
Lovin Varghese, T. Savio Jojo, Eldhose Paul, Ajo Issac John, Arun Raphel
Six stroke engine with 5th stroke powered by compressed air is a new type of engine developed by combining the idea of both six stroke engines and air engines. The development of a more efficient six stroke engine for increasing the efficiency by using compressed air which is injected into the cylinder through a third valve. The first four strokes are the same as that of four stroke engine but here after the fourth stroke, compressed air is inserted into the cylinder which pushes the piston downwards. Thus the last two strokes have two effects both scavenging and producing a power stroke. Expansion of compressed air produces cooling inside the engine cylinder so an external cooling system is not required. As fuel is injected once in six strokes the fuel consumed is less. Compressed air is also a fuel but the cost as compared to petrol or diesel is less and thus the total fuel economy is good as compared to conventional four stroke engines. Thus six stroke engine with compressed air has increased power, mileage, reduced pollution and engine weight.


7. Semi - Automatic Areca Nut Tree Climbing and Harvesting Robot
Eldhose Paul, Lovin Varghese, Ajo Issac John, George Jolly, Akash Paul Savio
Sourcing skilled labor for agriculture sector has become a tedious job in today's time. There is a need for mechanization in the farming process in order to cope with lack of manpower. Kerala, despite being the second largest producer of areca nut in India, depend on conventional climbing techniques which involve high risk for harvesting areca nut. This project is an intuitive mechanized robot, which would eliminate the need of manual climbing for harvesting areca nut. The main goal of the system is the use of economical technology which is safe and can be easily implemented. The robot consists of two mechanisms, climbing mechanism and cutting mechanism. The robot is so simple that it can be controlled by anyone.


8. A Brief Study of Android Versions, Architecture and Its Application Components
Anusha Yamijala
Android is the first free, open source mobile platform for application development. Now a day‟s developing applications by using Android had been increased drastically. Not only smart phones, tablet pc, palm top, notebook, eBook reader many of electronic devices are using Android as their operating system. In this paper, I will describe about the history and Basics of Android, Application components and fundamentals of android application development, versions of android. I assure and hope that the reader will understand or come to know about the android application development with the help of this paper.


9. Experimental Study on Strength of Bacterial Concrete with Bentonite as Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete
E. Divya Dharsheni, V. Anitha, G. Idhayaarasi, B. Asuruthi, V. Amaravathi, Mr. P. Muthanand
The concrete is the composite material made by the combination of the cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water. It is versatile in nature and can be cast in diverse shape hence it is used in major part of the construction industry. But the major disadvantage of the concrete is the Co2 emission, which will cause pollution to the environment. In order to control this emission to the environment the Bacillus bacteria is added to the concrete, which will absorb Co2 and undergo Bio-mineralization of Caco3. In this project an attempt is made to study the strength of bacterial concrete. To enhance the strength more, Bentonite powder is added as a replacement of 0%, 5% and 10% to the cement. Bentonite has strong colloidal property and which volume increases several times when coming in contact with water, creating a gelatinous and viscous fluid. The bacteria is added along with CaO which can precipitate calcite in crack and with that make the concrete structure water tight and enhance durability. This reduces the pores or cracks present in the concrete thus increasing the strength of the concrete.


10. Development of a hydropneumatic water pressure booster tank system for water hammer mitigation
Chika Edith Mgbemena, Chinedum Ogonna Mgbemena, Samuel Kika Ugbebor, Joseph Oyetola Oyekale
In many developed and developing countries alike, installed elevated water storage tanks are often characterized with pressure losses, thereby impairing the effectiveness of the installations. Also, accidents and fatalities caused by water hammerare common experience during operational life of such facilities, a situation that has been of serious concern to experts in this field in recent times. It is believed that these challenges are mostly associated with design factors and/or design considerations not fully satisfied. The concept of boosting the pressure of water during a no/low flow shutdown of the pump is believed to be one major solution to the pressure drop challenge. This concept, when it utilizes air in its operation to boost water pressure for enhanced delivery, is generally being referred to as hydropneumatic water pressure booster (HWPB)tank system. HWPBsystems provide pressured water quickly when needed without the use of a pump. They have received wide acceptance and application recently, in terms of field applications, as well as in research and development. While HWPB system is already fully operational in many advanced countries, its developmental trajectory has always pointed downwards in many developing countries across the globe. Since most water-related problems are mostly common in Africa and other developing economies, there is obvious need for tailored design and development of such innovation asHWPB tank system, to augment the existing methods of water distribution for every locality. The presentresearch article therefore aims to present comprehensive design of a 1.8m3capacity HWPB tank. Itwas designed to safely boost water pressure to a maximum allowable pressure of 0.90MPa, suitable for application in most Nigerian communities. The required total tank volume, pump capacity, pipe size and velocitywere calculated in accordance with American Water Works Association (AWWA) standard; while the pressure tank shell thickness, head thickness and flange rating were designed in consonance with the requirement of ASME and API 650. Static structural analysis of the tank was performed to ascertain its integrity against catastrophic failure. The HWPB tank developed was implemented in a hostel for students at Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, Nigeria, to ascertain its functionality and operability. The results obtained from the Stress analysis of the HWPB tank showed that the deformation of the tank was within the elastic range, which is below the Yield strength of the selected design material. It was therefore concluded that the tank would function safely when operated at the maximum calculated internal pressure of 0.90MPa.


11. Halting Global Warming
Jan-Erik Lane, Florent Dieterlen
Global warming must now be given more attention, by international organization (UNFCCC, G20), national governments and the public at large. We face Stephen Hawking's dire warning about irreversibility, but more important is the recent accumulation of evidence in support of global warming theory (GWT). Economist N. Stern (2007), declaring climate change the biggest external effect in human history, asks now: ―What are we waiting for? (Stern, 2015).Reply: the COP23 of the United Nations' UNFCCC to take real action and initiate activities that reduce CO2 emission.


12. Analysis of Pre-Engineered building and Conventional building using Primavera software
Stania I Patra, Melitia D'Mello
This thesis is based on analysis of pre-engineered building and conventional building taking case study as a three storey apartment (G+3) which is located at Hubli, Karnataka. In this thesis an effort is made to analyze the pre-engineered building and compare it with conventional structure for cost and other criteria. In super structures columns, beams, walls, flooring, slab, lintel, chajja are analyzed as pre-cast members. The planning is done as per requirements and the various activities involved in the construction of these members are considered. The study is carried out using Primavera P6 software which is a project management program


13. P-Delta Effect in the Structural Design of Multi-storey RCC Building Subjected to Seismic Loads
Vishwanath, Shweta B, Dr. Chinmayi H K
P-delta effect is secondary or second order effect on structure. It is also known as geometric nonlinearity effect. As number of storey increases, P-delta effect becomes more important. If the change in bending moments, shear forces and displacements is more than 10%, P-delta effect should be considered in design. In this study the P-delta effect on high rise building is studied. First order analysis (without P-delta effect) and second order analysis (with P-delta effect) on high rise buildings with different number of storey is carried out. For this multi-story R.C.C. framed buildings are modeled and analyzed for earthquake load and also for load combinations as per IS-1893(2002) for zone III using ETABS software.


14. Structural design of Mixed Signal IP block
A V Hari Babu, Dr. Jayanthi K Murthy, P Guru Kiran
In VLSI domain as technology is scaling down, physical design is becoming green computing topic in electronic design automation. Physical design plays significant role in improving frequency and power computation. In any VLSI physical design flow, along with area, power and delay there is tradeoff between turnaround times. Physical design automation can help in improving turnaround time factor along with quality of final product. In any VLSI design it is mandatory that design must operate correctly at desired clock frequency. Along with timing it is always good to have chip with lower area and minimum power consumption. Before tape out it is assumed that design is free from all errors and warnings and is optimized in best possible way. Some automation has been done in order to get optimal and accurate result with given constraints. As success of any product highly depends on performance of chip and time to market automation helps to improve both of these factors. This paper cover efforts done to make error free design for mixed signal IP block.


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