E-ISSN: 2456-2033

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IJAREM: Volume 08 - No. 08, 2022


1. Study on ship-ice interaction based on improved ice constitutive model
LI Chen-yang,YU Yong-ping
The interaction between ship and sea ice is one of the important problems in the field of ship collision, and the simulation of sea ice is the difficulty and focus of ship-ice collision. An elastoplastic constitutive model considering the temperature gradient of the ice layer is proposed, and the stress is updated by using the fully implicit graph return algorithm. Tsai-Wu yield criterion and empirical failure criterion are used to describe the yield and failure of the ice, which are embedded in the VUMAT subroutine of the finite element software ABAQUS, and the accuracy of ice material is verified. The ship-ice collision behavior under different collision speeds and bow column angles is studied, and the change of collision force, hull damage and deformation, and failure behavior of sea ice during the collision process are summarized. The results show that the collision force increases non linearly with the increase of ship speed, and the extent of ice damage and hull damage increases, and the collision force on the hull increases with the increase of the bow column inclination. The research results can provide a reference for the structural design of ships sailing in ice area.


2. Influence of Organizational Structure on Performance of Selected Small and Micro Enterprises in Machakos County, Kenya
Fidelis Kinya, Simon Murithi, Prof. Evangeline Gichunge
Small and micro enterprises are considered to be very important in the growth of many countries’ economies, especially the developing countries. In Kenya, the small and micro enterprises contribute highly in the growth of the economy through job creation, cherishing innovation and inequality reduction. Despite the various interventions made to grow these enterprises they have continued to perform poorly, struggle to survive and majority of them become bankrupt in their early years. This study sought to determine the influence of organizationalstructure on performance of selected small and micro enterprises in Machakos County. The study was anchored on resource-based view theory. The study adopted a descriptive research design. A sample size of 95 business owners from the target population of 2113 SMEs in Machakos County was considered. Stratification was used when selecting the respondents for the study. The researcher collected primary data by use of self-administered questionnaire. From the regressed results it was concluded that the relationship betweenorganization structure and performance of small and micro enterprises is negatively insignificant.The study therefore, made recommendation that; for an organization to thrive and enjoy improved performance, it has to formulate very articulate organizational structure which will be in line with the organizational goals and objectives so as to ensure organizational performance.









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